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Answer & Explanation:The Answer should 100 words or 120 . Do not write more than that. Also, I am going to attach two powerPoint so u can know the lesson.For this week’s discussion board, I would like for you to choose one of the following cultures: Individualistic, Collectivistic, Low-Context or High-Context.1. Briefly describe the culture2. Describe the role that they play in communication for people within these cultures.As always, please remember your initial post should be at least 100 words with 2 replies being at least 50 words each. And please remember to not post all on the same day.


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How Communication
Affects Culture; Cultural
Culture Affecting Communication

Individualistic vs. Collectivistic Cultures

In an individualistic culture, “people believe that their primary responsibility
is to themselves.” (Floyd, 2014, p. 40)

Emphasizing the importance of knowing yourself, being true to what you want
in your life and being able to be self-sufficient

People may believe that they need to help themselves instead of waiting for
others to come to their aid.
Collectivistic Cultures

Unlike individualistic, in a collectivistic culture, the people primarily care for
their communities, their families and their employers.

Basically, a collectivistic culture will take care of the needs of a group rather
than an individual.
Affects Of Individualistic vs.
Collectivistic on Communication

Affects on communication:

Experiencing Conflict:

Individualistic are expected to solve it.

Collectivistic may be more indirect and want to preserve harmony socially.
Public Speaking & Culture Centers

Collectivistic Societies may feel more anxious and nervous when they have to
give a speech.

Some researchers even suggest that individualistic-collectivistic are the most
fundamental ways that cultures differ from one another.
Low-Context Cultures & High-Context

With a low-context culture, people are expected to say what they mean. (Be

Examples include:

United States



Most Northern European Countries
Low-Context Culture

In a low-context culture, you may be made an example of.

For example, at work.

Going to be direct with you.
High context cultures

High context culture- Speaking in a less direct way.

Rather than expressing how you really feel, you may want to just make sure
everyone around you is happy and we all live in harmony with one another.
High Context-Culture

With the scenario of the boss, in a high context culture, it is more likely your
boss will cover what you may have done wrong in his office away from
everyone else.

Ambiguous language may also be used

The boss may not be bunt and not directly talk about the issue at hand.
Low-Context Cultures & High Context

People raised in high-context cultures often do not want to say “no” for fear
of causing offense.

For example, making plans with someone.
Low-Power Distance & High-Power

Low-power distance culture- “a culture in which people believe that no one
person or group should have excessive power” (Floyd, 2014, p. 42)
Low-Power Distance & High-Power

High-power distance cultures basically means that the power is not
distributed evenly.

Royal family, etc.
Low-Power Distance & High-Power

How does this affect communication?

Low-power distance culture- Tend to expect relationships to not be based on

High-power culture: May choose relationships based on social class.
Low-Power Distance & High-Power
Distance Cultures


Low-power tend to question authority.

High-power tend to respect those who are over them or in power.
Masculine & Feminine Cultures

Usually refers to people but it also refer to cultures.

Masculine Culture- May view stereotypical aspects such as achievement,
ambition and material goods as something to cherish.
Monochronic & Polychronic Cultures

Monochronic Culture- Tend to view time as important. As a commodity.

Tend to see their time as being valuable and people within this culture want
to spend time very wisely.

“Time is money”

Polychronic culture- May see time as more never-ending.
Uncertainty Avoidance

The extent in which we may try to avoid situations that we may view as unclear,
unstructured and unpredictable.

Want what is familiar to them.

Unlikely to take risks

Fear failure

May even be uncomfortable having a difference of opinion.
Having Cultural Awareness

Have open-mindedness:

If we have different cultural backgrounds, we may think differently than
others rather than just communicate differently. So being open-minded is

Be mindful:

Be aware of how other individuals thinking and the way that they behave
could be different than us.

Cultures vary in their practices. Here in the United States, if someone does
not look us in the eye, we may think they are being rude. In Japan, it signals
Having Cultural Awareness

Avoid Ethnocentrism

When people judge other culture practices as being inferior to your own.

If someone has not been exposed to various cultures outside of their own,
they may believe that their traditions are the right way to do things.

Communication Codes

Cultures vary from one to the other with their use of communication codes.
There are 3 kinds of communication codes:
This can make communication difficult because they can vary.

When a phrase’s meaning is figurative.

Can’t understand the meaning when we interpret the words literally.

Every society has its own idioms where their meaning may not be obvious to

When the meaning of a word or phrase may be understood by those within a
co-culture, but possibly not people outside of it.

Know when to code-switch (shift between jargon and plain language)

Gestures are movement, possibly with the hands or the arms, when someone
is trying to express an idea.

Not all gestures mean the same thing everywhere.
Interaction With Others

Be respectful

Be flexible

Expect ambiguity
Lack of uncertainty.
Communication Technology &

Appreciate the differences

In the United States, we have the internet. We are a developed country.

However, places that may still be developing economically may not be able to
communicate through technology like we do.

Digital Divide- When there is a cultural gap between societies that have
regular internet access and those who do not.
Adapt To Others

We need to adapt to other customs, particularly those relating back to
communication behavior.

When we adapt, we are changing our behavior in order to accommodate for
other individuals.

If you find yourself in a social situation where people are speaking quietly,
you may need to adapt and lower your voice.

Adapting to others is very important in intercultural communication.

Slides/Notes For This Lesson (Chapter 2) Are Taken From:

Floyd, K. (2014). Communication And Culture. In Communication Matters (2nd
ed., pp. 28-51). New York: McGraw Hill.
Communication &
Cultural Barriers

Cultural barriers should never stop us from communicating and helping
one another.

In 2010, an earthquake killed thousands of people in Haiti, yet
communities from all around the globe coordinated relief efforts in
order to help.

Countries sent relief workers, and organizations from Armenia & Zambia
sent food, medicine, money and other supplies to help those struggling.

This demonstrates that despite the cultural barriers that we may face,
we can all still work together toward one common goal.
Culture & Communication

All of us will communicate with people from other cultures at some
point in our lives.

Culture is extremely important and powerful in communication

It will not only affect how we are expressing ourselves, but also how
we interpret and react to other people.

Culture can mean many different things

Sometimes culture can be referring to a place

Sometimes culture can refer to ethnic or religious groups

Even if we don’t realize what we are doing, the traditions of our
culture and our beliefs play a major role in how we make sense of
communication behavior.

Even though culture can be defined in different ways, the term
actually means “totality of learned, shared symbols, language,
values and norms that distinguish one group of people from
another.” (Floyd, 2014, p. 30-31)

In other words, culture isn’t a property of economic, ethnicity or
countries, but rather a property of people.

The people who share common languages, symbols, values and
norms are known as societies.

In-Groups refer to groups that we identify with.

Location, for example.

Out-groups are those groups that we see differently than us.

If you were to travel out of the country and you were to be around
people who communicate differently or behave differently than
you, then you may be perceived as an out-group to them.
In-Groups & Out-Groups

Social media plays a role in in-groups and out-groups, as well.

On facebook, your friends list would be considered your “in-group.”

Your out-group may be those individuals that you have
“unfriended” or who are not on your friends list.

There is even a question as to whether facebook should qualify as
it’s own culture.
In-Groups and Out-Groups

With out-groups, some perceive being different as exciting and

For other people, this can be stressful.

Research has found that immigrants experience high levels of stress
during the first year that they are in their new homeland.
In-Group & Out-Group Culture

Research shows that many people prefer other individuals and
groups of people who are similar to themselves.

People are also less trusting of other people who have different
ethnic, cultural or national background than them.

Unfortunately, this can lead to people feeling uncomfortable to live
or work where they are considered a minority, especially if they
suffer from discrimination.

The reason why so many countries struggle with the issue of
immigration is because of the in-group/out-group distinction.
Acquiring Culture

How do we acquire culture?

Many people may believe that we have to simply inherit or culture
genetically, such as the same way we may inherit our eye color and
other characteristics, but this is not true.
Acquiring Culture

Culture is NOT necessarily based on our ethnicity (our perception of
heritage and ancestry)

Culture is NOT necessarily related to our nationality (our status as a
citizen of a particular country)

Culture is learned.

We acquire culture by learning about values, traditions and language
of people who have raised us.

Enculturation – “The process of acquiring culture.” (Floyd, 2014, p. 33)
Acquiring Culture

A Cambodian-born citizen who is raised in the United States will
probably adopt the practices and languages of the United States.

In this case, the ethnicity would be Cambodian, but the culture
would be United States.
How We Learn Cultural Messages

Some of our cultural messages are learned through direct

For example, when we were kids and our parents would tell us to say
“Thank You” when someone would give us a gift, this imparts cultural
knowledge in a direct and conscious manner.

We learn cultural messages through imitation. This is when you learn
cultural norms by observing others.

We can even pick up cultural practices subconsciously.
With culture being the shared language, customs and beliefs, it can
seem as though you may actually belong to different cultures.
With many national cultures, such as here in the United States, we have
a host of other cultural groups that are called Co-Cultures.
Co-Culture- “Groups of people who share the values, customs, and
norms related to mutual interests or characteristics besides their
national citizenship.” (Floyd, 2014, p. 34)

Co-Culture is NOT based on the country where you were born or the
society in which you were raised.

Co-Culture is made up of smaller groups of people that you identify

In some cases, you may identify with your co-culture just as much, or
even more, than your national culture.

Co-Cultures can form around shared activities, beliefs or interests.

If you are into fishing, comic book collecting, politics, etc., there are
co-cultures for these interests.

Some co-cultures form due to differences in mental or physical
abilities. Many deaf populations have customs that may differ from
hearing populations.
Co-Culture Features

Co-Culture also have different features

Logos, etc.

Flags, symbols etc can be a co-culture feature.

Co-Cultures may also use certain jargon that are only understood by
those in their co-culture. For example, a police officer of firefighter.
Identifying Multiple Co-Cultures

A lot of people identify with several co-cultures at once.

You may relate to one co-culture from your age group to musical
tastes to ethnicity to religion.

Each one of these co-cultures may have their own beliefs, traditions,
values, customs and a way of using language.
Cultural Symbols

Just as we discussed last week, a symbol is something that
represents an idea.

Every culture has symbols that represent ideas to that culture.

For example, the saying of “that’s as American as baseball and
apple pie.”

What symbols are being used in this?
Cultural Languages

It is believed that there are about 6,800 languages used in the world today.

More languages are spoken in Queens, NY (138 at last count) than any other
city on Earth, according to to the New York State Controller’s office.

The three most common languages in the world today are:

1. Chinese

2. Spanish

3. English

In 2010, there was a 2,000% increase in tweets written in Arabic, which makes
Arabic the fastest growing language on Twitter.
Cultural Values

Cultures vary in their values

The values a culture has refers to the “standards it uses to judge how
good, desirable or beautiful something is.” (Floyd, 2014, p. 37)

In the United States for example, psychological research indicates
that this country values material comfort, equal opportunity,
practicality, efficiency, achievement, democracy, individual choice
and free enterprise.
Cultural Values

1 Power

2. Achievement

3. Hedonism

4. Stimulation

5. Self-direction

6. Universalism

7. Benevolence

8. Tradition

9. Conformity

10. Security
Cultural Norms

Norms refer to the rules or the expectations that help to guide
individuals behavior within a culture.

For example, Greeting people when you first meet them

Here in America, you may shake their hand and say, “Hello, it is nice
to meet you, my name is ______”

In other cultures, someone may bow.

Slides/Notes For This Lesson (Chapter 2) Are Taken From:

Floyd, K. (2014). Communication And Culture. In Communication
Matters (2nd ed., pp. 28-51). New York: McGraw Hill.

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